Summary of Previous Outcomes Since the COP First Formed in 2015
Here is a summary of previous outcomes since the COP first formed in 2015. (Source: European Parliament).
At COP21 in Paris, France in 2015, countries agreed to limit global warming to well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius. This was achieved through the adoption of the Paris Agreement, which aims to strengthen the ability of countries to deal with the impacts of climate change and to support them in their efforts to transition to a low-carbon economy.
At COP22 in Marrakech, Morrocco in 2016, countries reaffirmed their commitment to the Paris Agreement and made progress in implementing it. They also launched the Marrakech Partnership for Global Climate Action to support the implementation of the Paris Agreement.
At COP23 in Bonn, Germany in 2017, countries made progress on developing the rules and guidelines for implementing the Paris Agreement, including on issues such as transparency and accounting for emissions. They also launched the Ocean Pathway Partnership to address the impacts of climate change on oceans.
At COP24, in Poland in 2018, the Katowice decisions constituted the 'rulebook' for the Paris Agreement. They give an operational interpretation to the Agreement and top-down direction to complement the bottom-up approach of 'nationally determined contributions' (NDCs).
The COP25 took decisions to strengthen implementation of the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage by establishing the Santiago Network for averting, minimising and addressing loss and damage by offering technical assistance to vulnerable developing countries. It also adopted an enhanced gender action plan to promote gender-responsive climate action and climate finance.
Outcomes of the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26) is the Glasgow Climate Pact noting the need to reduce emissions by 45 % by 2030, from 2010 levels. A work programme to deliver on the global goal for adaptation was launched. Doubling of adaptation finance levels by 2025, compared to 2019, within the annual US$100billion climate finance pledge was also agreed. COP26 also delivered on its goal to finalise the Paris rulebook, which allows for operationalisation of key aspects such as international carbon markets, the agreement on emissions accounting and reporting under the Enhanced Transparency Framework, and agreed common timelines in NDC submissions.
COP27, held in Egypt, saw the decision to establish a fund for responding to loss and damage. It is a significant milestone because it comes after almost three decades of asking and it sets a precedence for climate justice.
COP28 will be held in Dubai, UAE in 2023. The UAE’s priorities for its COP of course will include a focus on how to implement the policies that were agreed in Paris and Glasgow.